Mark Twain. Photography of AF Bradley (New York, 1907).
|Birth Name||Samuel Langhorne Clemens|
|Birth||As November 30 as 1835
Florida (Missouri), United States
|Death||As April 21 as 1910 (74 years old) Redding , United States
|Death cause||Acute Myocardial Infarction|
|Home||Mark Twain House|
|Father||John Marshall Clemens|
|Spouse||Olivia ( Livy ) Langdon Clemens|
|Children||Langdon, Susan Olivia ( Susy ), Clara and Jane ( Jean )|
|Occupation||Writer , speaker , humorist|
|Gender||Humor , satire , adventure novel, historical novel , essay , travel literature , children ‘s literature|
|notable works||The Adventures of Tom Sawyer(1876), Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (1885)|
Samuel Langhorne Clemens , known by the pseudonym of Mark Twain ( Florida , Missouri , 30 of November of 1835 – Redding ,Connecticut , 21 of April of 1910 ) was a popular writer , speaker and humorist American . He wrote works of great success as The Prince and the Pauper and A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur’s Court , but is best known for his novel The Adventures of Tom Sawyer and its sequel , Adventures of Huckleberry Finn .
Twain grew up in Hannibal (Missouri) , rather than used as a stage for the adventures of Tom Sawyer and Huckleberry Finn. He apprenticed as a printer and typesetter , and participated in writing articles for the newspaper of his older brother Orion. After working as a printer in various cities, he became navigator pilot on the Mississippi River , he worked with little success in mining ofgold , and returned to journalism. As a reporter , he wrote a humorous story, The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County(1865), which became very popular and attracted attention to her person nationally, and travel books were also welcomed. Twain had found his calling.
He lacked financial acumen and, although he won a lot of money with his writings and lectures, which squandered in several companies and was forced into bankruptcy. With the help of entrepreneur and philanthropist Henry Huttleston Rogers finally resolved their financial problems.
Twain was born during one of the visits to Earth the comet Halley and also predicted that “I will go with him”; died the next return to Earth the comet, 74 years later. William Faulkner called Twain as “the father of American literature.” 1
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- 2His work
- 7References used
- 8Further reading
- 9External links
Biography [ edit ]
Early years [ edit ]
Samuel Langhorne Clemens was born on November 30, 1835 in the small town American in Florida , Missouri , which his parents, John Marshall Clemens (August 11, 1798 – March 24, 1847) and Jane Lampton Clemens (June 18 1803 – October 27, 1890), twohad moved from the County of Fentress ( Tennessee ) to live near a prosperous uncle, John Quarles, a shop owner, a farm and some twenty black slaves. 3 4 5
Was the sixth of the seven children of the couple, but only three of his siblings survived childhood: his brother Orion (July 17, 1825 – december 11 of 1897), Henry, who died in the explosion of a riverboat (July 13, 1838 – June 21, 1858) and Pamela (19 September 1827 – 31 August 1904). His sister Margaret (May 31, 1830 – August 17, 1839) died when he was three, and his brother Benjamin (June 8, 1832 – May 12, 1842) died three years later. Another brother, Pleasant (1828-1829), died just six months old. 6 Twain was born two weeks after the closest approach to Earth ofHalley ‘s Comet . 7
At four years old, a few months after the death of his sister Margaret, 3 his family moved to nearbyHannibal ( Missouri ), river port on the Mississippi , where his studies. 8 Hannibal was the inspiration for the fictional town of St. Petersburg in the adventures of Tom Sawyer and adventures of Huckleberry Finn . 9 at that time ,Missouri was a slave state , and the young Twain was familiar with the institution of slavery, a subject explored later in his writings .
Youth [ edit ]
His father died of pneumonia in March 1847 , when Samuel was 11. 10 left school without completing his studies (he had completed grade 5), and the following year began working as a printer ‘s apprentice in a local newspaper. In 1851 he became a typesetter and began to publish some humorous sketches and short stories of trips in the Hannibal Journal , a newspaper owned by his older brother Orion. 11 When he was 18 he left Hannibal; in 1853 his brother bought part of the Journal of Muscatine ( Iowa ), and between 1853 and 1855 Samuel made several contributions in the form of travel stories while traveling and working as an itinerant printer in New York , Philadelphia , St. Louis and Cincinnati . 12 also he lived and worked in Keokuk, Iowa, and sent some articles to the local newspaper. 13 14 he joined the newly formed union of typographers International Typographical Union , and formed himself in public libraries in the evenings, looking for more information than in a school conventional. 15 at 22 hereturned to Missouri.
During a trip to New Orleans river down the Mississippi, watching Horace E. Bixby, navigator pilot of typical riverboats , paddle steamers plying the river, Twain decided to seek work himself as a pilot. 16 As noted later in his book Life on the Mississippi , the pilot of a steamboat surpassed even the captain in prestige and authority, and it was a profitable occupation, with a salary of 250 dollars a month, an important consideration for the time amount. 17 a pilot boat river steamer needed a comprehensive and detailed knowledge about the changing river and was able to stop in hundreds of wooden ports and jetties. Samuel meticulously studied more than 3000 km of the Mississippi for more than two years until he got river pilot license in 1859. 18 During his training, Samuel convinced his brother Henry to work with him. Henry died on June 21, 1858 in the explosion of Pennsylvania , where he worked steam. Samuel had a premonition of this death in a realistic dream I had a month earlier, 19 which made him interested in the parapsychology ; He was one of the first members of the Society for Psychical Research (Society for Psychical Research). 20 Samuel was very upset and felt guilty for the rest of his life. 21 22
His life as a river pilot was brief; he worked on the river until the outbreak of the Civil War US in 1861, and the Mississippi traffic was restricted. Missouri was a state of the American South and was represented in governments both federal and Confederate during the Civil War. Samuel and some friends joined a volunteer militia group Confederates , the Marion Rangers for two weeks, before the company disbanded. 23
Travel [ edit ]
Twain joined his brother Orion, who in 1861 had been appointed secretary to James W. Nye , Governor of the Territory of Nevada , and headed west. 24 They traveled for more than two weeks in a stagecoach through the Great plains and Rocky Mountains , visiting the community Mormon from Salt Lake City along the way. These experiences served him as inspiration for Turning fatigues and provided material for the famous frog jumping Calaveras district . The trip ended in Virginia City , Nevada , where he became mining with the intention to get rich quick, but without success. 23 The following year he found work in a small town newspaper, the Territorial Enterprise ,25 and it was there where he used for the first time his pseudonym : the February 3, 1863 signed a humorous story about a trip, Letter From Carson – re: Joe Goodman; party at Gov. Johnson’s; music , like “Mark Twain” 26 27 adopted expression mark twain , typical of the work songs of blacks in the riverboats of the Mississippi River, which means “mark two”, in reference to two fathoms (3.6 m ), the minimum depth necessary for safe navigation. 28 29
Twain moved to San Francisco ( California ) in 1864, still as a journalist. There he met writers like Bret Harte , Artemus Ward and Dan DeQuille , and may have had an affair with the young poet Ina Coolbrith . 30
His first success as a writer came when his humorous tale The famous frog jumping Calaveras District was published in a New York weekly, The Saturday Press , November 18, 1865. It was an immediate success, which gave him national recognition. A year later he traveled to the Sandwich Islands (now the Hawaiian) as a reporter for the Sacramento Union . His travelogues were popular and served as the basis for his first lectures. 31
In 1867, a local newspaper he financed a trip through the Mediterranean . During his tour of Europe and the Middle East, he wrote a popular collection of travel letters compiled in 1869 under the title of The Innocents Abroad . On this trip he met his future brother, Charles Langdon.
Marriage and children [ edit ]
During his tour of the Mediterranean, Charles Langdon showed him a picture of his sister, Olivia, which usually called Livy ; Twain claimed to have fallen in love at first sight. They met in person in December 1867 and began a courtship during 1868, held mostly by letter; although Olivia rejected his first proposal of marriage, the following year they were promised and in February 1870 married in Elmira (New York) . 31 32 Olivia came from a wealthy family liberal but, and through it Twain met abolitionists , socialists , atheists principled activists and women ‘s rights and social equality asHarriet Beecher Stowe , Frederick Douglass and writer and utopian socialist William Dean Howells , 33 with whom he struck up a deep friendship.34
The couple installed in Buffalo (New York) , in a house bought by the father of Livy, and their first son, Langdon Clemens, was born in November 1870. At that time Twain was co – owner of the newspaper Buffalo Express , which worked as publisher and editor. 35
The family moved to Hartford (Connecticut) in 1871, and in 1873 acquired the land to build their new house north of the city, and which were installed in 1874. 36 On June 2, 1872, shortly moving to Hartford and before settling in their new home, his son Langdon died of diphtheria only 19 months old. 37 was his only son, but Olivia gave birth to three daughters: Susan Olivia ( Susy , 1872-1896 ), Clara (1874-1962) and Jane ( Jean , 1880-1909). 38 the marriage of Clemens lasted 34 years, until Olivia’s death in 1904. the whole family is buried in the Woodlawn cemetery in Elmira. 39
During the 1870s and 1880s , Twain and his family spent summers at Quarry Farm, a house in Elmira who had acquired Olivia’s father for a holiday and that his death inherited his eldest daughter, Susan. 40 41 In 1874, Susan built a studio octagonal, separated from the main house, so that his brother had a quiet place to write. 40 During the seventeen years that passed in Hartford and twenty at Quarry Farm, Twain wrote many of his novels classics like the adventures of Tom Sawyer (1876), the prince and the pauper (1881), Life on the Mississippi (1883), adventures of Huckleberry Finn (1885) and a Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur’s court (1889).
Twain made a second trip to Europe, which he described in his 1880 book A Tramp Abroad .
Interest in science and technology [ edit ]
Twain showed throughout his life a great interest in science, scientific research and new technologies. He became close and long friendship with Nikola Tesla , and the two spent much time together in Tesla’s lab. 42
Twain patented three inventions, as a ‘Better adjustable and removable straps for clothes “(to replace suspenders ) and a set of historical anecdotes. Which he had a major commercial success was a photo book adhesive; had a dry glue on pages and only had to moisten slightly before use. 43
His book A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur’s Court is starring a time traveler from the United States contemporaries, who uses his scientific knowledge to introduce modern technology in England Arthurian . This type of argument later became a frequent feature of theucronía or alternative history, a subgenre of science fiction .
Financial problems [ edit ]
Twain always lacked financial acumen and although he won a lot of money with his works, lost large sums in various investments, mostly in new inventions and technology, especially in the Paige composer, machine designed to replace the typographer human in the printing , wit mechanical well advanced that stunned during his public presentation, but very complex and needed constant adjustments; Twain invested in it between 200,000 and 300,000 dollars (a huge amount of money for the time) from 1880 and during the 14 years of their participation, but before it could be perfected became obsolete by the introduction of linotype . The writer not only lost most of the income from his books, but also a substantial part of the inheritance of his wife. 45 46 47
He also lost money with the publishing company he created in 1885, the Charles L. Webster Company , which enjoyed great initial success with the publication of books such as Memoirs of Ulysses S. Grant or your own Adventures of Huckleberry Finn , but finally he ended in bankruptcy. 48 49 50
Through his writings and lectures, and the help of his new friend Henry H. Rogers , Twain could it recover economically. 51 His friendship with Rogers, director of the Standard Oil and a prominent businessman and financier, began in 1893 and lasted until his death in 1909. Among other things, Rogers made Twain file a declaration of bankruptcy of its publishing and to transfer the copyright of his works to his wife, Olivia, to prevent creditors do with them. Rogers took over the finances of Twain to get pay all your debts. 52 53
In 1895 Twain undertook a lecture tour of the United States and around the world to pay all debts to creditors, though he had no legal obligation to do so. 54 55 About this experience he published his last book of travel, following the Ecuador (1897), a book that provided needed revenue. 56 he returned to the United States in 1900, having earned enough money to settle its debts.
Recent years [ edit ]
In his last years of life, Twain went through a period of deep depression, a situation that was reflected in his work. In 1896 his daughter Susy, only 24 years old, died of meningitis . After living three years in Riverdale, New York, his wife became ill in 1903 and moved to Italy, seeking medical advice warmer weather; They lived in Villa di Quarto , on the outskirts of Florence , until Olivia died in 1904 of cardiac arrest. Clara, her middle daughter, married in 1909, but his young daughter, Jean, died Christmas Eve of that year, probably because of an attack epileptic , and his friend Henry Rogers died suddenly victim of a stroke . 57 58 59 60
Between 1906 and 1907, Twain published Chapters from My Autobiography over 25 deliveries in the literary magazine North American Review . 61In 1906 he formed the Angel Fish and Aquarium Club , a club for girls who the author saw, in a way as surrogate granddaughters. More than a dozen members of the club were age 10 to 16; Twain exchanged correspondence with girls Angel Fish and invited to play concerts and the theater.In 1908 he wrote that the club was “the greatest satisfaction of his life.” 62
In 1907 he received the title of Doctor Honoris Causa by the University of Oxford (UK). The ceremony was held on June 26, 1907 with the assistance of a large number of personalities. This was an honor doctorate appreciated by Twain. 63 64 65
Twain said in 1909: 66
“I came in with Halley’s Comet in 1835. It is coming again next year, and I expect to go out With It. It will be the greatest disappointment of my life if I do not go out Halley’s Comet With. The Almighty has Said, no doubt: ‘Now here are these two unaccountable freaks; They came in together, They must go out together. ‘ Oh! I am looking forward to that. “ “I came into the world with Halley ‘s Comet in 1835. Back again next year and hope to leave with him. It will be the greatest disappointment of my life if I do not go with the Halley comet . The Almighty has said, no doubt: ‘Now here are these two unexplained phenomena; they came together, together must leave. ” Ah! I look forward to . “
” Mark Twain gave pleasure – real – intellectual enjoyment – to millions, and his works will continue to give pleasure to millions yet Such to come. I have never wrote a line That Could not read a father to a daughter. His mood was American, but I was nearly as much appreciated by Englishmen and people of other country clubs as by His own countrymen. I have made an enduring part of American literature. . “ “Mark Twain delighted us-a real intellectual pleasure to millions of people, and his works continue to delight millions more yet to come. He never wrote a line that a father could not read a daughter. His humor was American, but it was so appreciated by the British and people from other countries and by their own countrymen. It created an enduring part of American literature. “
His work [ edit ]
An American loves his family. If I have any love left over for some other person have Mark Twain Generally selects . An American loves his family. If you have extra room to love another person usually chooses Mark Twain.
In its beginnings as a writer, Twain wrote light and humorous verse, but evolved into a chronicler of the vanities, hypocrisies and cruelties of mankind. A mid-career, withHuckleberry Finn combined a fertile humor with a strong narrative and social criticism. Twain was a master of colloquial language, and helped create and popularize an American literature with its own personality, based on American themes and language. Many of his works have been banned for various reasons, Adventures of Huckleberry Finn has been repeatedly banned American high schools, often by their frequent use of the word nigger ( “black” or even “nigger”) for refer to people of color, a term that was commonly used in the pre-period Civil War in the place where the action of the novel takes place and that the proponents of this work argue that the use of that stereotype is part satirical way of writing the author, but it can also have a connotation racist and pejorative . 72 73
A complete list of his works is almost impossible to compile because of the huge number of works written by Twain (often in obscure newspapers) and the fact that he used several different pseudonyms. In addition, a large part of his speeches and conferences has been lost or was never transcribed; so, the collection of his works is a still unfinished process.Its researchers still currently works published by the author. 74
First journalistic work and conferences on travel [ edit ]
In 1863, when he worked in the newspaper of Virginia City Territorial Enterprise , Clemens met Tom Fitch lawyer, newspaper editor competition Virginia Daily Union and reputed speaker (he was known as “peak gold” Pacific); Twain Fitch attributed to be the person who gave him his “first really profitable lesson” on how to write. In 1866, Clemens gave a massive conference on the Sandwich Islands (now the Hawaiian) in Washoe, Nevada and although Fitch considered that his speech was superb, gave some advice on certain points of the speech that his understanding should avoid the future. 75 76 77 78
The first major work Twain, The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County , was published in the New York Saturday Press titled Jim Smiley and His Jumping Frog on 18 November 1865. This short story became very popular and attracted attention to himself at national level. It was to be initially published in a book Artemus Ward compiling stories of the old west , but finally could not be included in it, probably for not having arrived in time for inclusion. 79
After this burst of popularity, The Sacramento Union entrusted him the task of writing letters about his travel experiences for publication in the journal, the first of which was a trip on the steamer Ajax in its maiden voyage in the Sandwich Islands. 80 these humorous letters were the genesis of his work with the daily San Francisco Alta California , who named correspondent on a trip to San Francisco to New York via the Panama Canal .81 Meanwhile, was writing letters published here and there , chronicling his experiences with his characteristic derisive humor. On June 8, 1867 he embarked on the pleasure cruiser Quaker City in a five – half-month and by Europe and the Holy Land ; the result of this experience is his first travel book , The Innocents Abroad ( The Innocents Abroad ). 82 Twain spent much of his life abroad, and published a total of five travel books. 83
In 1872, Twain published his second work of travel literature , Passing fatigues ( Roughing It ), to some extent a continuation of The Innocents Abroad . It is a semi – autobiographical account of his trip to Nevada and the time he lived in the American West ; 84 the book parody of American society and the West in the same way that Innocents criticized different countries in Europe and the Middle East. In his next work keeps the focus on American society Passing fatigues , but focuses more on the events of the time. The Gilded Age: A Tale of Today ( The Gilded Age: A Tale of Today ), 1874, is a important career moment, it marks the transition from the short stories and travel books to the novel and fiction more complex; 85 was written with his neighbor Charles Dudley Warner , and she satirizes the greed and political corruption after the Civil War . 86 is the only book that Twain wrote in collaboration. 86
Two of his works took advantage of the author ‘s experiences as a navigator pilot on the Mississippi River . In Old Times on the Mississippi ( Old Times on the Mississippi ), a series of short stories originally published in the magazine Atlantic Monthly in 1875, Twain overlooked many of the sordid aspects of life in the river and shows the romanticism and heroism in the paddle steamers of the Mississippi. 87 This series of stories are the basis of his later life on the Mississippi .
Consolidation as a writer [ edit ]
His next major publication was The Adventures of Tom Sawyer ( The Adventures of Tom Sawyer , 1876), a work inspired by his childhood in Hannibal. Tom Sawyer was modeled to Twain child, with details of two schoolmates, John Briggs and Will Bowen. In the book she appears as a minor character Huckleberry Finn, inspired by a childhood friend of Twain, Tom Blankenship. 88 89
The Prince and the Pauper ( The Prince and the Pauper , 1881), although the argument is frequently used in film and literature today, was not well received. 90 tells the story of two physically identical boys born the same day, and serves as a basis for social reflection when the prince and the pauper exchange their roles. the prince and the pauper was his first work of historical fiction, and some of its limitations are attributed to their lack of experience with English society, and also because it was written after a great success.
Adventures of Huckleberry Finn ( Adventures of Huckleberry Finn , 1884), established him as one of the most important American writers. Some authors consider, next to Moby-Dick by Herman Melville , the beginning of the so – called “Great American Novel” and became required reading in many schools throughout the United States. 91 92 The American magazine Newsweek included it among the 100 best books ever, 93 and a survey conducted in 2002 among writers around the world, also considered as one of the most important novels of all time. 94Huckleberry Finn is a sequel of Tom Sawyer and has a more serious tone than its predecessor. The main premise of Huckleberry Finn is the faith of the young in doing the right thing, although many believe it is wrong. Some studies indicate that in mid-1876, following the publication of Tom Sawyer , had written four manuscript pages ofHuckleberry Finn and stopped working for seven years after this first creative impulse, finally finishing the book in 1883; it is believed that also was working during that time in The Prince and the Pauper and other novels as A Tramp Abroad ( A Tramp Abroad ), a work that narrates a journey of Twain central Europe and south. The final part of Huckleberry Finn is controversial. Some, like the critic Leo Marx, believe that Twain “lost value” 95 and Ernest Hemingway said:
If you read it, you must stop the Nigger Jim is Where stolen from the boys. That is the real end. The rest is just cheating. If you read it , you have to stop when the Black Jim is captured by the boys. This is the final authentic. The rest is just a hoax.
However, in the same essay, Hemingway also wrote:
All modern American literature comes from one book by Mark Twain called, Adventures of Huckleberry Finn . All modern American literature begins from the book entitled Mark Twain, Adventures of Huckleberry Finn .Hemingway, The Green Hills of Africa , Chapter 1. 96
When he was near the end Huckleberry Finn , published Life on the Mississippi ( Life on the Mississippi , 1883), work based largely on an earlier work, Old Times on the Mississippi; 97 98 this book travel and memories is about his days as navigator pilot of a paddlewheel steamer on the Mississippi river, and new experiences Twain, after twenty two years after his return. In this work the expression mentioned mark twain , typical of the work songs of blacks in the riverboats of the Mississippi, which means “mark two”, in reference to twofathoms (3.6 m), the minimum depth needed for a safe navigation. 99
Last works [ edit ]
Following the publication of his most important work, Twain began to focus on their business to keep them viable initiatives, and to avoid the difficulties encountered when writing.He focused on the publication of the memoirs of President Ulysses S. Grant by the editorial had just put up with his nephew: the Charles L. Webster & Company . . These reports were a great commercial success 100 In between he found time to write The private story of a campaign that failed ( The Private History of a Campaign That Failed , 1885) for the magazine The Century Magazine ; in this work he chronicled their participation for two weeks in the military Confederate during the Civil War . 101
Later he focused on writing A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur’s Court ( A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur’s Court , 1889), a novel which first manifest disappointment with politics. Written in the same style of “historical fiction” of The Prince and the Pauper , in this work showed the absurdity of political and social norms placing them in the court of King Arthur . He began writing in December 1885 and left a few months, until the summer of 1887, finishing in the spring of 1889.
At this time he began writing articles and comments frantically, each time with fewer benefits and many under different pseudonyms, to pay bills and keep their business, but it was not enough; ended up going bankrupt in 1894. 102 48
His next novel, The bobo Wilson ( The Tragedy of Pudd’nhead Wilson and the Comedy of The Extraordinary Twins , 1894), was written quickly, as Twain was desperately trying to avoid bankruptcy. Between 12 November and 14 December 1891, Twain wrote 60,000 words for this work. Critics have attributed to these rush the cause of the poor organization of the novel, and the constant interruptions in the plot. There are parallels between this work and Twain ‘s financial failings, notably his desire of the main character to escape their circumstances and become someone else. As inThe Prince and the Pauper , this novel also tells the story of two boys born on the same day, they exchange their roles in life. 102
In 1896 he published the novel Personal Recollections of Joan of Arc ( Personal Recollections of Joan of Arc ), work dedicated to his wife. Despite the criticism, Twain said it was the work that was most proud of , and to which he devoted 12 years to complete. 103 This novel had been a dream since childhood, and said he had found a manuscript detailing the life of Joan of Arc as a teenager. Twain thought that this novel would save his publisher; his friend and financial adviser, Henry H. Rogers, took the idea of the head and got to leave that business, but the book was also published.
During this time of great financial difficulties, Twain published several book reviews in newspapers to get some money. Among these critics highlighted his famous mockery ofJames Fenimore Cooper , which detailed the “literary offenses” of this author. He became an extremely scathing critic, not only others, but also other critics. 104 Other authors victims of attacks Twain during this time (from about 1890 until his death) were George Eliot , Jane Austen and Robert Louis Stevenson . 105 Besides being a resource for your style of literary criticism “tooth and nail” Twain says in several letters and essays which he considered “quality writing” and emphasizes conciseness, the choice of words adequate, and realism.
His wife died in 1904 in Florence , where he had moved because of the disease Olivia, and after a while Twain decided to publish some of his works to his wife, his editor and censor de facto throughout their life together, not they had run out of like. the mysterious stranger ( the mysterious stranger: a Romance ), which chronicles several visits nephew ofSatan on Earth, is the best known, but was not published in Twain ‘s life. Three versions between his manuscripts, written between 1897 and 1905, and because of the confusion between different manuscripts were eventually published a mixture of versions and until recently could not have the original versions as the author wrote them were found.
Between 1906 and 1907 published Chapters from My Autobiography through 25 deliveries in the literary magazine North American Review. 61 Twain felt it would be more entertaining if you had your life at will and not in chronological order; some publishers restructured these extracts in a more conventional way, thus eliminating part of the Twain humor. Initially only parts were published, as he had left instructions that it not be published until 100 years after his death. The first volume of autobiography, of more than 736 pages, was published by the University of California in November 2010, 100 years after his death, according to their desires. 106 107 The book soon became a bestseller,108 109 regard to Twain one of the few authors who have published new books bestseller in three centuries, XIX, XX and XXI.
Works [ edit ]
Thought [ edit ]
Anti – imperialism [ edit ]
Twain’s ideas became more radical with age. Some commentators, he acknowledged that his thinking changed and developed throughout his life:
When I finished Carlyle’s French Revolution in 1871, I was a Girondin; every time I have read it since, I have read it differently – being influenced and changed, little by little, by life and environment … and now I lay the book down eleven more, and Recognize That I am to Sansculotte! – And not a pale, characterless Sansculotte, but Marat . 110 When I finished [reading] the French Revolution of Carlyle in 1871, I was a Girondin ;every time I’ve been reading ever since I saw it differently – I have been influenced and have changed little by little, life and the environment … and now I pick up the book once more, and recognize I am a sans culott ! – And not a sans culott haggard, little character, but a Marat .
[I used to be] an imperialist power. I wanted the American eagle screaming out over the Pacific. Why not spread its wings over the Philippines, I wondered? … I said to myself, here are a people who have suffered for three centuries. We can make them as free as ourselves, give them a government and an own country, put a miniature of the United States Constitution floating in the Pacific, start a brand new republic to take its place among the free nations of the world. It seemed a great task to which we had dedicated.
But I thought a little more, since, and I have carefully read the Treaty of Paris [which ended the Spanish-American War ], and I have seen that we do not intend to free, but to subjugate the people of the Philippines . We have gone there to conquer, not to release.
It should be, I think, our pleasure and duty to make that free people, and let them treat their domestic issues in their own way. And so I am anti – imperialist. I am against the eagle put its talons on any other land. 111 112
Before 1899 Twain was an ardent imperialist . In the late 1860s and early 1870s he spoke firmly in favor of US interests in the Hawaiian Islands. 113 In the mid-1890s, as he explained later, was an imperialist power. I wanted to see the American eagle over the Pacific Ocean. He said the war with Spain in 1898 was ” the most honorable war ever fought.” 114 115 In 1899 he changed his mind, and early 1900s, until his death in 1910, Twain was vice president of the “American Anti-Imperialist League “(American Anti – Imperialist League) 116 117 who opposed the annexation of the Philippines by the United States and had” tens of thousands of members. ” 33 he wrote many political pamphlets for this organization. His Incident in the Philippines (Incident in the Philippines), published posthumously in 1924, was in response to the “Slaughter Moro Crater , ” where six hundred were killed Philippine Moors . Many of his writings against imperialism forgotten and collected first appeared in book form in 1992. 116
In 1905, following the Philippine-American War, Twain wrote a short story pacifist entitled Prayer war ( The War Prayer ), in which he argues that humanism and the preaching of love from Christianity are incompatible with war. The story was sent to Harper’s Bazaar for publication, but on March 22, 1905 the magazine rejected the story saying that ” it was not appropriate for a women ‘s magazine.” Eight days later he wrote a letter to his friend Dan Beard , who had read him the story and said , ” I do not think that prayer is published in my time. Only the dead are permitted to tell the truth . ” As the author had an exclusive contract with publisher Harper & Brothers, who refused to publish his controversial character at the time, Prayer war remained unpublished until 1923. 118 The work was republished in 1960 as part of the material the campaign of protests against the Vietnam War .33
He also was critical of imperialism in other countries. In Following Ecuador ( Following the Equator ), a work that Harper also refused to publish, 118 expresses ” hatred and condemnation of imperialism of all kinds .” 33 He was very critical of European imperialism, especially with Cecil Rhodes , who expanded the British Empire , and of Leopold II of Belgium ; 33 his Soliloquy of king Leopold ( king Leopold’s Soliloquy ) is a scathing political satire about his private colony, the Congo Free State .
He supported the Russian revolutionaries against the reformists, arguing that it was necessary to replace the tsar violently because peacefully not work. 119 His revolutionary sympathies came partly the result of past revolutions, like war American revolutionary , and made demonstrations in defense of the revolutions in the sense that had always reason to occur:
I am said to be a revolutionist in my sympathies, by birth, by breeding and by principle. I am always on the side of the revolutionists, Because there never was a revolution UNLESS Were there some oppressive and intolerable conditions Against Which to revolute . 120 I am a revolutionary by my sympathies, by birth and by principle. I am always on the side of the revolutionaries, because there has never been a revolution unless there were oppressive and intolerable against which had to rise conditions.
Religion [ edit ]
Although it was a Presbyterian , it was sometimes critical with religion organized and with some elements of Christianity towards the end of his life. He wrote, for example, “Faith is believing what you know is not ‘ 121 and’ If Christ were here now, there is one thing that would not be – a Christian.” 122 However, at maturity participated in religious discussions and attended religious services, and raised funds to build a Presbyterian church in Nevada in 1864, although it has been argued that he did only because of the relationship he had with his brother Orion, a member of that church. 123 his theology developed as facing the deaths of their loved ones and their own mortality; their own experiences and suffering of his family made him particularly critical of the so – called healing through faith and with the ideas of Mary Baker Eddy and Christian Science . 124
Twain generally avoided publishing their views heretical about religion in life, and are known from essays and stories that were published after his death. In the essay Three Statements of the Eighties of the 1880s, said he believed in an almighty God, but not in any message, divine revelations , holy books such as the Bible , the divine providence or the reward of a life after death . Yes he said that “goodness, justice and mercy of God manifested in their works”, 125 but also that “the universe is governed by strict and immutable laws” that determine “minor issues” such as who dies in an epidemic. 126 at other times wrote or spoke so that belied a vision deist strict, such as professing a belief in Providence.127 in some later writings in the 1890s, it was less optimistic about the goodness of God, noting that “if our Creator is all – powerful for good or for evil, is not right in the head.”Sardonically also surmised that perhaps God had created the world with all its tortures by another own purpose, but was indifferent to humanity, it was too insignificant to merit his attention. 128
In 1901 he criticized the actions of William Scott Ament (1851-1909) because Ament and other missionaries had taken punitive indeminzaciones in Chinese villages after the Boxer Rebellion of 1900. An article with Twain’s reaction to the methods Ament was published in magazine North American Review in February 1901, to the person sitting in darkness(the person sitting in the dark), with examples of imperialism in China, South Africa, and the US occupation of the Philippines. 129 in an article later, to my missionary critics (to my critics missionary) published in the same journal in April 1901, he continues with his criticism, but this time focusing their attacks not on the mission, but his superiors, the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign missions. 130
After the author’s death, his family suppressed some of his work which was especially irreverent toward conventional religion, notably Letters from the Earth (Letters from the Earth), which was not published until her daughter Clara changed his mind in 1962 response to the Soviet propaganda about the fact hide it . 131the Mysterious Stranger , anti -religious content, was released on 1916. Little Bessie , a story ridiculing Christianity, was first published in the compilation of 1972 Mark Twain’s Fables of Man . 132 his daughter Clara said that towards the end of life his father thought much about life after death; his daughter said, ” Sometimes I thought that death had everything, but most of the time was sure a life beyond .” 133
During his years of work on the Mississippi, Twain joined the freemasonry , and then probably subscribed to the doctrine of the organization. 134 belonged to the lodge Polar Star No. 79 AF & A.M. based in St. Louis (Missouri) , where he started as apprentice on May 22, 1861, he passed the degree of partner on June 12, and reached the degree of Master on July 10 the same year; after he was relieved of the order, then he restored in 1867 and finally resigned in October 1868. 135
Civil and workers ‘ rights [ edit ]
He was a strong supporter of abolitionism and emancipation , even said that the Emancipation Proclamation of Lincoln “… not only freed the black slaves, but also freed the whites.” 136 137 He argued that men who were not whites did not receive justice in the United States: “I have seen Chinese insulted and abused of all low and cowardly ways that a degraded nature can devise … but I never saw a Chinese vindicated in a court of law for treatment He received unjust. ” 138 Twain helped financially at least two people of color, so that he could attend Yale Law School and another to attend college and become southern preacher. 139
It was an unconditional supporter of the emancipation of women and advocate of women ‘s suffrage . Had special relevance his famous speech of January 20, 1901 Votes for Women , which called for granting the right to vote for women. 140 141
Twain was an admirer of the author, political activist and speaker deaf and blind Helen Keller . She met her , along with her teacher Anne Sullivan , at a party in New York the winter of 1894; Twain was concerned that its precarious financial situation would not affect their studies and presented them to his friend Henry Rogers, who with his wife, Keller paid education at Radcliffe College . 142 143
He wrote laudatory way about the unions of the industry riverboats in Life on the Mississippi , and his writings were read in the union premises decades later. 144 Supported thelabor movement , especially one of the most important unions, the Knights of labor . 145 in a speech he wrote for them in 1886, he said:
Who are the Oppressors? The few: the King, the capitalist, and a handful of other overseers and superintendents. Who are the oppressed? The many: the nations of the earth; the valuable personages; the workers; They make the bread That That the soft-handed and idle eat . Who are the oppressors? Less: the King, the capitalist, and a handful of other overseers and superintendents. Who are the oppressed? The most: the nations of the earth; the valuable personages; Workers; they that make the bread soft and idle eat. 146
Legacy [ edit ]
Over a hundred years after his death, Twain’s legacy endures worldwide, especially in the United States. In his honor, many schools are named, as Mark Twain Elementary School in Texas Houston, which has a statue of the author sitting on a bench, or Middle School Mark Twain in New York , as well as various secondary schools in several US states , as Samuel Clemens High School in Schertz, near San Antonio, Texas , and other structures such as the Mark Twain Memorial bridge, located on the Mississippi river near Hannibal . The United States Army has a district located in the facility Südstadt in Heidelberg, Germany , who is called Mark Twain Village.
There are several awards in his honor. In 1998, the John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts created the Mark Twain Prize for American Humor, which is awarded annually. The Mark Twain Prize is a prize awarded annually to a book for children who attend the fourth through eighth grade by the Association of School Librarians Missouri. The Stetson University in DeLand (Florida) sponsors the Workshop Mark Twain Young Authors each summer in collaboration with the Mark Twain Boyhood Home & Museum in Hannibal; The program is open to young authors who study in grades five eight. 147 The museum also sponsors the Mark Twain Creative Teaching Award. 148
Some buildings associated with the author’s life, including some of his many homes, have been preserved as museums. His birthplace is preserved in Florida (Missouri) . Children’s Home and Museum Mark Twain in Hannibal (Missouri)retains the scene of some of the best known works of the author. The home of childhood friend Laura Hawkins, which is said to be the inspiration for his fictional character Becky Thatcher, is preserved as the “Thatcher House.” In May 2007 opened to the public a meticulous reconstruction of the home of Tom Blankenship, who inspired the character of Huckleberry Finn. The family house built in Hartford (Connecticut) , where he and his wife raised their three daughters, is preserved and open to the public as the Mark Twain House .
Actor Hal Holbrook created a one – man show called Mark Twain tonigh , monologue he has done regularly for more than 57 years. 151 The issued by the CBS in 1967 he gave an Emmy Award . Of the three seasons on Broadway(1966, 1977 and 2005), with first got a Tony Award .